Saturday, May 19, 2018

[Herpetology • 2018] Pseudopaludicola restinga • A New Species of Pseudopaludicola (Anura, Leptodactylidae) from Espírito Santo, Brazil


Pseudopaludicola restinga
Cardozo​, Baldo, Pupin, Gasparini & Haddad, 2018

  DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4766 

Abstract
We describe a new anuran species of the genus Pseudopaludicola that inhabits sandy areas in resting as associated to the Atlantic Forest biome in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The new species is characterized by: SVL 11.7–14.6 mm in males, 14.0–16.7 mm in females; body slender; fingertips knobbed, with a central groove; hindlimbs short; abdominal fold complete; arytenoid cartilages wide; prepollex with base and two segments; prehallux with base and one segment; frontoparietal fontanelle partially exposed; advertisement call with one note composed of two isolated pulses per call; call dominant frequency ranging 4,380–4,884 Hz; diploid chromosome number 22; and Ag-NORs on 8q subterminal. In addition, its 16S rDNA sequence shows high genetic distances when compared to sequences of related species, which provides strong evidence that the new species is an independent lineage.

Keywords: Leptodactylidae, Morphology, Taxonomy, 16S rDNA, Advertisement call, Chromosome number



Figure 3:  Pseudopaludicola restinga sp. nov. in life. 
Specimens from Fazenda Jacuhy, Serra (A–B), and Restinga de Praia das Neves, Presidente Kennedy (C–D).
 Photo: J Gasparini.

Pseudopaludicola restinga sp. nov. 

Synonyms. Pseudopaludicola aff. falcipes 
Almeida, Gasparini & Peloso (2011): 548 (listed) and Gasparini (2012): 15 (listed).


Diagnosis. The new species is assigned to Pseudopaludicola by its phylogenetic position and by the presence of a tubercle on the forearm, anterolateral processes of the hyoid absent, posterolateral processes of hyoid reduced, and epicoracoid cartilages slightly superposed. The new species is characterized by: (1) SVL 11.7–14.6 mm in males, 14.0–16.7 mm in females; (2) body slender; (3) fingertips knobbed with a central groove; (4) hindlimbs short; (5) abdominal fold complete; (6) arytenoid cartilages wide; (7) prepollex with base and two segments; (8) prehallux with base and one segment; (9) frontoparietal fontanelle partially exposed; (10) advertisement call with one note, composed of two isolated pulses per call; (11) dominant frequency ranging from 4380–4884 Hz; 12) diploid chromosome number of 22; and 13) Ag-NORs on 8q subterminal.

....

Etymology. The word “restinga” has an unclear origin in Brazilian Portuguese, but it is the proper name of the vegetation near the sea where the new species occurs: the restingas. Apparently, “res” comes from Latin, meaning “thing” and “tinga” comes from the Tupi indigenous language, meaning “white”, probably an allusion to the clear sandy soil of this formation. Here, restinga is used as a noun in apposition.

Distribution. Pseudopaludicola restinga sp. nov. is known from six municipalities in Espírito Santo State, Brazil (Fig. 9): Serra (type locality), Guarapari, Presidente Kennedy, Vitória (Reserva Ecológica Municipal Mata Paludosa), Vila Velha (Morada Interlagos and Vale Encantado lagoon), and Itapemirim (Lagoa das Sete Pontas or Lagoa Guanandy).

Natural history notes and conservation insights. This species can be found between dunes or at the borders of lagoons in wet or flooded places, mostly after rainfall events. The individuals were found vocalizing on the mud during the day. In addition, in the rainy season males also call in the evening and night. The restingas belong to the Atlantic Forest biome, a global biodiversity “hotspot” (Myers et al., 2000). In the restingas, the plants form paludous or herbaceous forests, but the constant disturbance of this habitat, induced by man, has led to the loss of most of their original area (Rocha et al., 2003). In concordance with the economic expansion of Brazil from 2000 to 2014, multiple infrastructure projects were developed on coastal areas of Espírito Santo, particularly port activity, and oil and gas exploitation. As a consequence, multiple pristine areas have been severely affected, including Restinga de Praia das Neves. The presence of a new anuran species in the restingas along the coastal areas of Espírito Santo contributes to the knowledge of the richness of vertebrate biodiversity of this fragile ecosystem, which requires conservation policies capable of maintaining and preserving the biological heritage of the region and of the country.


Dario E. Cardozo​, Diego Baldo, Nadya Pupin, João Luiz Gasparini and Célio F. Baptista Haddad. 2018. A New Species of Pseudopaludicola (Anura, Leiuperinae) from Espírito Santo, Brazil. PeerJ. 6:e4766.  DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4766


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