Friday, May 4, 2018

[Botany • 2018] Magnolia mercedesiarum (subsect. Talauma, Magnoliaceae) • A New Andean Species from northern Ecuador, with Insights Into Its Potential Distribution


Magnolia mercedesiarum  D.A.Neill, A.Vázquez & F.Arroyo

in Vázquez-García, Neill, Shalisko, et al., 2018. 

Abstract
Magnolia mercedesiarum, a new species from the eastern slopes of the Andes in northern Ecuador, is described and illustrated, and a key to Ecuadorian Magnolia (subsect. Talauma) is provided. This species differs from M. vargasiana in having broadly elliptic leaves that have an obtuse base vs. suborbicular and subcordate to cordate, glabrous stipular scars, more numerous lateral veins per side and fewer stamens. It also differs from M. llanganatensis in having leaf blades broadly elliptic vs. elliptic, longer petioles, less numerous lateral leaf veins per side, larger fruits and more numerous petals and carpels. Using MaxEnt species distribution models and IUCN threat criteria, M. mercedesiarum has a potential distribution area of less than 3307 km² and is assessed as Endangered (EN): B1 ab (i, ii, iii). The relevance of systematic vegetation sampling in the discovery of rare species is highlighted.

Keywords: Magnoliids, Guacamayos; Antisana; Sumaco-Galeras; Napo; Orellana; Sucumbíos


FIGURE 1. Magnolia mercedesiarum.
A. Flower bud. B-C. Fruit before and during dehiscence. D. Flowering and fruiting branch. E. Flower (forced to open from mature flowerbud). F. Stamens. All from the type material.
Drawing by Efrén Merino Santi.

FIGURE 2. Magnolia mercedesiarum. A. Tree. B. Flower (forced to open from mature flowerbud). C. Leaf and lateral veins. D. Flower bud. E. Fruit before dehiscence.
Photographs A and E by Efren Merino-Santi. B, C and D. by Antonio Vázquez. A tree. B and E from the holotype. C and D from Vázquez et al. 10126. 

FIGURE 3. 
Magnolia mercedesiarum. A.-B. Open small fruit with eight carpels. C and D. Open fruit of nine carpels. E.-F. Open fruit of ten carpels.
Illustration by R. Efren Merino- Santi, all based on the type material. 

Magnolia mercedesiarum D.A.Neill, A.Vázquez & F.Arroyo, sp. nov.  

Magnolia mercedesiarum is similar to M. vargasiana but differs in having broadly elliptic leaves that area obtuse at the base vs. suborbicular and subcordate to cordate, glabrous stipular scars, more numerous lateral veins per side and fewer stamens. It is also similar to M. llanganatensis in having similar size of flowers and glabrous leaves; however, it differs from the latter in having leaf blades broadly elliptic vs. elliptic, longer petioles (2.0–) 4.0–8.5 vs. 1.0–1.5 cm, fewer lateral veins per side 9–10 vs. 16–17, more numerous petals (8 vs. 6) and carpels (8–10 vs. 4–6) and larger fruits (3.8–5.0 × 2.7–3.6 cm vs. 3.0 × 2.0 cm; Table 2).

....

Eponymy:— The species is named in honour of two Ecuadorian women named Mercedes who have contributed to botanical science and conservation in their native country: Mercedes Asanza, professor at the Universidad Estatal Amazónica, administrative curator of the ECUAMZ herbarium at that university, and specialist in taxonomy and ecology of ferns; and Mercedes Mamallacta, a Kichwa ethnobotanist from Archidona, Napo Province, gardener, native plant propagator and inheritor and guardian of millennia of Kichwa plant lore.

Ethnobotany:— No uses are recorded for the species in the type locality. However, according to informant Antonio Naranjo (Cerón & Ayala 9896, from Río Due), the plant is known as “orejas de burro” (donkey ears). It is aromatic, and leaves mixed with urine and salt are used to clean sick animals.

Notes:— Magnolia mercedesiarum is the first species of Magnolia described from the eastern slopes of the Andes in northern Ecuador; it is the third confirmed species of Magnolia in Napo Province after Magnolia pastazaensis and M. “napoensis” ined. (Vázquez-García et al. 2016a), the last two at lower elevation and sympatric at Jatun Sacha Biological Station. Its occurrence in the Due River area represents the second species of Magnolia recorded from Sucumbíos Province after M. neillii in the Amazon lowlands of northeastern Ecuador (Vázquez-García et al. 2016a).


  


J.-Antonio Vázquez-García, David A. Neill, Viacheslav Shalisko, Frank Arroyo and R Efrén Merino-Santi. 2018. Magnolia mercedesiarum (subsect. Talauma, Magnoliaceae): A New Andean Species from northern Ecuador, with Insights Into Its Potential Distribution.  Phytotaxa. 346(4); 254–268.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.348.4.2
 researchgate.net/publication/324824414_Magnolia_mercedesiarum_a_new_Andean_species_from_northern_Ecuador

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